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Over the past 15 years, HIV prevalence in Rwanda has stabilized at approximately 3%. The annual incidence in the overall population has been falling, to 0.08% in 2019, which equates to approximately 5,400 new HIV cases per year. Rwanda has also made excellent progress towards global 90-90-90 targets. This quite positive overall state obscures conditions among subpopulations that require urgent attention. Across all age bands, women have higher HIV-prevalence rates than men. Prevalence is about two times greater in older adolescent girls and young women (ages 15-24 years) compared with older adolescent boys and young men. Of particular concern are subpopulations that engage in higher-risk sex. HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) has been falling over the past decade – from 50% in 2010 – but remains extremely high, at 35.5%. HIV-prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is high nationally at 7%, particularly in Kigali, with MSM over 35 years of age in the capital having an HIV-positive rate of 30%.